Counting and Kids

Lisa S. Romero is an Associate Professor at the California State University Sacramento.

Amid all the excitement about the 2020 election, you might have missed a bit of news that has very broad consequences for our nation’s schools and students. In October, the Supreme Court allowed the Trump administration to halt the 2020 Census count.  Its ruling effectively ended the count of what is supposed to be every person in the nation. This is not trivial because it means that some people, in some states, were less likely to be counted than others.  Undercounting has very real implications for funding for schools and students, and for reapportionment and the electoral college.

Undercounting: Who’s Likely to be Undercounted and Why?

Some states, like California, are more likely to have its population undercounted. Why? The state has a more mobile population which is harder to find, and therefore harder to count. This includes people who don’t own homes and move from one apartment to another, and migrant and seasonal workers who move around the state following jobs. We can add to this a higher rate of homelessness in some states. If you drive down the road and see folks living in tents along the right-of-way, there is some good reason to think they may not have been counted.

And, in states with higher immigrant populations, an undercount is also more likely. In this case, people may be afraid to answer official requests for information because of their visa status. Compare California with an immigrant population of about 27% with that of Idaho, at about 6%, and it becomes clear why this is more of an issue for a state like California. Overall, people who are most likely to be missing from Census counts are renters, Natives Americans, Latinos, Blacks, young children, and limited English speakers.

The Census and Funding for Students and Schools

The Census has broad ramifications for schools and especially for students from low income families. Census data determines the distribution of:

  • More than $14 billion in Title I grants that help schools that serve 24 million plus students from low-income families
  • Nearly $30 billion in Pell grant funding for low income college students
  • $11.3 billion in special education grants to the states
  • About $19 billion for the National School Lunch Program
  • $8.5 billion for Head Start preschool programs
  • Plus, funding to support Safe and Drug Free Schools and Communities, grants to improve teacher quality, funding for career and technical education, and the list goes on.

Reapportionment and The Electoral College

Census counts are also the basis for reapportionment, a fancy word for determining how many Members of Congress each state is allocated.  By law, the U.S House of Representatives has 435 members.  Every ten years, Census data is used to determine of how many Members of Congress will be allocated to each state, and thus which states will gain representation, and which states will lose representation. Undercounting in any state therefore leads to a disproportionate loss of representation in Congress. It also determines how many Electoral College votes each state has, which as we all know well by now, is how the outcome of Presidential elections are determined. After this Census, California and New York are expected to lose Electoral College votes, while States like Texas and Florida are expected to gain.

This is the reason that states work to boost Census participation and the reason that many states fought the action of the Trump administration to stop the count. Sadly, this Census was mired in political division.  But even more sadly, it will be students who suffer from a Census made political, and a Census ended prematurely.  We can and should do better for America’s youth.

What should we look for in a new Secretary of Education?

What should we look for in a Secretary of Education?

Author: Lisa S. Romero is an Associate Professor at California State University Sacramento.

Many educators have been critical of the U.S. Secretary of Education Betsy DeVos’ performance. During her tenure, DeVos has pushed to privatize public schools, eliminated student protections against predatory, for-profit colleges and fraudulent lending, failed to enforce the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act that requires schools provide much needed support for students with special needs, reversed policies on sexual assault on campus, and incredibly, advocated for more guns in schools. Add to that the pandemic, and her threats to defund public schools that don’t fully open…regardless of local circumstances. And, the list goes on.

I’ve written before about the ways Betsy DeVos is uniquely unqualified to lead the U.S. Department of Education. If President Trump is re-elected, we can expect more from Betsy DeVos. If Joe Biden is elected, a new Secretary of Education will be nominated. Betsy DeVos has shown us the qualities we don’t want in a Secretary of Education, so what are the qualities we should we be looking for?

I thought it would be interesting to hear what policy makers had to say about this, especially policy makers who have themselves been educators, sit on committees that play a role in important legislative decisions about education, or are the product of public education. 

To find out, I interviewed Congressman Mark Takano, California Assembly Member Jose Medina, Congresswoman Susan Davis, and former U.S. Senator Barbara Boxer.  Listen to their answers in the video.

Supreme Relief … for Now

It was a long wait for the Supreme Court ruling on Dreamers. And the celebration has been sweet for Dreamers, those of us who love Dreamers, count Dreamers among our family and friends, and those of us who have realized that Dreamers have always been home in America, have always been the essence of who we are as a nation.  But in the midst of our celebration, the actual ruling is worth review, and that review is not as reassuring. 

The Court found that the Trump administration cannot simply end the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) program which allows about 800,000 Dreamers to avoid deportation. The decision found that the government violated the Administrative Procedures Act by failing to give adequate justification for ending the program. In other words, the implication is that, with more adequate justification, DACA could end. This should temper somewhat our celebration and send a cold chill down the spine of any American who believes in justice for Dreamers. And, of course, Donald Trump is already touting that his administration will take just that action.

There is another thing that the decision should do to the spine of caring Americans.  It should strengthen our spines and our resolves to end the presidency of Donald Trump and opt for presidential leadership that bends toward justice, that believes in science, that puts diplomacy ahead of bluster, and that cares for all children of the world.  That is when Dreamers and those of us who care about Dreamers can rest a bit easier.

For more–

Listen to NPR’s interview with Dreamer Antonio Alarcon, one of the plaintiffs in the DACA case:

https://www.npr.org/2020/06/18/880513774/celebrate-today-fight-tomorrow-daca-case-plaintiff-on-supreme-courts-decision

Read the full text of the Supreme Court decision on DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ET AL. v. REGENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA ET AL here: https://www.supremecourt.gov/opinions/19pdf/18-587_5ifl.pdf